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Palaiž miljoniem ģenētiski modificētus odus, sekas nezināmas

Biotech uzņēmums ar nosaukumu Oxitec ir saņēmis Floridas štata atļauju izlaist simtiem miljonu ģenētiski modificētu vīriešu odu. Aktīviste, kursa savāca 200’000 parakstu pret šo projektu tika atrasta mirusi stundu pirms parakstu nodošanas oficiālajai iestādei.

Uzņēmums apgalvo, ka šie ģenētiski modificētie odi var palīdzēt novērst slimības, kuras parasti pārnēsā odi, piemēram, tropu drudzis, chikungunya, dzeltenais drudzis un Zika. Teorētiski šie ģenētiski modificētie vīriešu odi vairosies ar savvaļas mātītēm, un viņu ģenētika izraisīs viņu pēcnācēju nāvi, kas, viņuprāt, novedīs pie pilnīgas savvaļas populācijas sabrukuma.

Problēma ir tur, ka modificētie odi nav testēti uz cilvēkiem un notiks dzīvais eksperiments, un neviens nezin kā ietekmēs cilvēkus, kukaiņus, dzīvniekus un augus. Zinātniekiem nezin precīzi, kas notiks, kad šīe modificētie odi bez nopietniem testiem uzreiz tiek palaisti uz dzīviem cilvēkiem un dabu. Daudzi eksperti arī norāda, ka riski nav pietiekami izpētīti. Daži zinātnieki brīdina par iespējamām neparedzētām sekām, kas var rasties, izlaižot šādus kukaiņus savvaļā.Pētnieki vispār nezin, kāda veida alerģiskas reakcijas varētu izraisīt šie kukaiņi, ja tie mijiedarbojas ar cilvēkiem.

Pagājušajā mēnesī ASV Vides aizsardzības aģentūra (EPA) piešķīra Oxitec atļauju līdz 2022. gadam vadīt izmēģinājuma projektu ar saviem ģenētiski modificētajiem odiem, un Florida piešķīra uzņēmumam eksperimentālās lietošanas atļauju, kas viņiem ļauj nekavējoties eksperimentēt ar Floridas iedzīvotājiem un dabu.

Bila un Melindas Geitsu fonds ir sadarbojies arī ar Oxitec, lai izstrādātu tehnoloģiju, ko viņi sauc par “gēnu piedziņu”, kas ir ģenētiska modifikācija, kas paredzēta, lai izplatītos vairākās odu paaudzēs un pēc tam atstātu odus sterilizētus vai, iespējams, nespējīgus izplatīt noteiktas slimības .

Lai kritiķi justos labāk, Oxitec viņu odus, ir nodēvējuši par “draudzīgiem”. Bet tas ir nosaukums bez pamatojuma. Tieši otrādi nav izslēgts scenārijs, ka pēc šāda oda kodiena arī cilvēkiem varētu samazināties reprodukcija. Vai šis gadījumā nav vēl viens populācijas samazināšanas veids?

Oxitec's Friendly ™ odi nerada risku cilvēka veselībai vai videi, ieskaitot zivis un citas ūdens dzīvības, putnus, sikspārņus, augus, bezmugurkaulniekus vai apdraudētās sugas, teikts uzņēmuma paziņojumā presei, liecina MSN.

Tomēr daudzi eksperti tam nepiekrīt un ir mēģinājuši organizēt pasākumus pret šo dīvaino ģenētiskās tehnoloģijas izmantošanu. Ilinoisas Urbana-Champaign universitātes Ilgtspējas, enerģētikas un vides institūts organizēja debates par ģenētiski modificētajiem odiem, kurā piedalījās 35 pētnieki no dažādām sfērām, ieskaitot akadēmisko aprindu, valdības un bezpeļņas organizācijas. Piedalījās odu bioloģijas eksperit no vairākām pasaules valstīm. Pētnieki atzina, ka Oxitec neatklāja publisk nei veikto testēšanas procesu, ne arī mākslīgo izstrādes tehnoloģiju.

Vai projekti, kam ir risks ietekmēt sabiedrības veselību būtu atļaujami bez sabiedrības piekrišanas?


Iepriekš plānota Oxitec ģenētiski modificēto odu versijas izlaišana Florida Keys tika atcelts 2016. gadā pēc tam, kad vietējie iedzīvotāji protestēja par iespējamām briesmām.

Publiskajā forumā jautājumam par atļaujas izsniegšanu odu palaišanai bija savākti 31’174 iebildumi, un tikai 56 atbalstošas balsojumi. Tātad 99,9% cilvēku ir pret šādiem eksperimentiem. Lai gan tika solīts, ka EPA ņems vērā šos balsojumus pārskatīšanas procesā, atļauja tik un tā tika izdota. Saskaņā ar USA Today teikto, uzņēmums pēdējos desmit gadus strādā pie šī mērķa sasniegšanas.

Nopietnas bažas rada ziņa, ka nogalināta protestētāja (Mila), kura bija savākusi 200'000 parakstu. Viņa tika atrasta mirusi stundu pirms parakstu iesniegšanas Vides aģentūrā (EPA).

Oxitec jau ir palaiduši odus Brazīlijā, Kaimanu salās, Malaizijā un Panamā. Tālāk uzņēmums plāno palaist odus Teksasas štatā.

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